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Reverse Osmosis
Reverse Osmosis
  Emek Hefer, Israel
Type
Technology

Technology Description
Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a modern process technology used to purify water for a wide range of applications, including:
Semiconductors
Food processing
Power plant
Municipal drinking water
Etc.
Biotechnology
Pharmaceuticals
Seawater desalting
Mobile water purification
The Reverse Osmosis system includes:
Pre Treatment
R.O. unit
Post Treatment

The quality of the feed water is defined in terms of concentration of suspended and dissolve particles and saturation levels of the soluble salts. The common indicators of those particles used in the RO industry are Turbidity, Silt Density Index (SDI) and Total Dissolve Solids (TDS).

The feed water, depending on its source, may contain various concentrations of suspended and dissolved solids. The objective of the feed water pretreatment process is to improve the quality of the feed water to the level which would result in reliable operation of the RO membranes.

In RO, the water passes through the membrane at a much faster rate than the dissolved solids (salts).

The driving force of the reverse osmosis process is applied pressure. The amount of energy required for osmotic separation is directly related to the salinity of the solution. Thus, more energy is required to produce the same amount of water from solutions with higher concentrations of salt.

The RO system produces purified water (permeate) from the feed water via rejection of organic and inorganic constituents by a semi permeable membranes.

It separates the incoming feed stream into two effluent streams:
The permeate passes through reverse osmosis membranes and as a result,contains contains much lower quantities of salts and organics.
The concentrate is the stream which passes tangentially across the membrane surface and thus contains the impurities separated from the permeate.

Post treatment depends on the required water quality defined by the customer.
 

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